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If protection structures are needed, we recommend building in redundancies rather than relying on single protection features, such as a levee.

If a levee fails, then the whole protection system fails. Redundant measures could include those that provide resilience in operations, as well as the design of a particular structure, including the overload case. Such approaches to protection require authority, control, and maintenance necessary for them to work. They can and ultimately will fail, as was the case in the 2013 floods. This type of flood control can never provide complete protection.

PERC Reports