Invest more in understanding and mapping small-scale processes.
Water is not the only reason for flooddamage. Particularly when it comes to small watercourses, better understanding is needed of how additionalprocesses contribute to the flood. Obstructions that can form at underpasses and bridges, as well as thepotential for high flow velocities should be included in flood maps and incorporated in decision-making.Flood debris, including soil, trees and cars, machinery, etc., needs to be included. This should also lead peopleto think about where to store materials that can be swept away and encourage them to develop realistic andfeasible plans when a flood warning is issued; that might include temporarily relocating materials anddispatching equipment needed to clean at-risk areas.Mapping small watercourses, and including these considerations, is of course data intensive and hence a costlyand challenging task. In addition, the density of the river gauge equipment is directly dependent oninvestments in personnel resources. In reality, many water management offices are working under resourceconstraints. It is a question of priorities by society to invest in a risk-based approach and allocate correspondingresources to these important offices