Warnings should provide actionable guidance that is integrated into everyday life and
behaviour, providing transparency and credibility to help manage risk in emerging
and ongoing situations. Warnings must operate beyond the silos frequently seen in
institutions, for different vulnerabilities, different hazards, and different stakeholders to
become a long-term social process that can serve to bring together these diverse issues.
This report examines how this can be implemented providing key case-study examples of lessons learnt and guidance on how to build effective warning systems.
To enhance a warning requires placing it as part of a warning system, a long-term social
process that embodies the 3 I’s and 3 E’s: 3 I’s: Imagination, Initiative, Integration. 3 E’s: Education, Exchange, Engagement.
Fearnley, Carina, Dr.; Kelman, Ilan (Professor)
UCL Warning Research Centerfor National Preparedness Commission, UK
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